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Technical Papers Authored or Co-authored By Dr.  Robert  H.  Badgley

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Order: #25

25. Tessarzik, J.M., Badgley, R.H., and Fleming, D.P., "Experimental Evaluation of Multiplane-Multispeed Rotor Balancing Through Multiple Critical Speeds," ASME Paper No. 75-DET-73, presented at the ASME Vibrations Conference, Washington, D.C., September 1975, and published in Trans. ASME, Journal of Engineering for Industry, Vol. 98, Series B, No. 3, August 1976, p.988-998.

Experimental tests have been conducted to further demonstrate the ability of the Influence Coefficient Method to achieve precise balance of flexible rotors of virtually any de-sign for operation through virtually any speed range. Four distinct practical aspects of flexible-rotor balancing were investigated in the present work: (1) Balancing for operation through multiple bending critical speeds; (2) balancing of rotors mounted in both rigid and flexible bearing supports, the latter having significantly different stiffnesses in the horizontal and vertical directions so as to cause severe ellipticity in the vibration orbits; (3) balancing of rotors with various amounts of measured vibration response information (e. g. , numbers of vibration data sets, and numbers and types of vibration sen. sors), and with different number of correction planes; (4) balancing of rotors with different (though arbitrary) initial unbalance configurations. Tests were made on a laboratory quality machine having a 122-cm (48-in. ) long rotor weighing 50 kg (110 Ib) and covering a speed range up to 18, 000 rpm. The balancing method was found in every instance to be effective, practical, and economical, permitting safe rotor operation over the full speed range covering four rotor bending critical speeds...

Order: #26

26.  Badgley, R. H. , Smalley, A. J. and Fleming, D. P. , "Drive Train Dynamics Technology: State-of-the-Art and Design of a Test Facility for Advanced Development, " ASME Paper No. 75-DET-74, presented at the ASME Vibrations Conference, Washington, DC, September 1975.

Mechanical power transfer systems (drive trains) are widely used because of high transfer efficiency, and low cost and weight. Since it is frequently necessary to change the rotational speed and/or the path of the transmitted power, transmissions are a common and critical component of mechanical drive trains. Considerable engineering effort has been expended on gearbox design, often to the relative neglect of the other aspects of drive train design and operation. In particular, except for torsional vibration considerations, little attention has been given to the fact that the drive train, comprising gears, couplings, shafts, bearings, dampers, and clutches, is also rotor-dynamics system which is dynamically coupled with the driving and driven machinery. The result is that drive train for advanced applications increasingly encounter a regime of operation wherein undesirable design compromises or operating deficiencies must be accepted because of an inadequate understanding of drive train dynamics technology. This paper treats briefly the background of flexible dynamic drive-train systems, discusses the present state-of-the-art in several important areas, and finally describes the design characteristics and capabilities of a drive train test facility which is being constructed for advanced development of drive train dynamics technology and components.

Order: #27

27. Tessarzik, J.M., Chiang, T., and Badgley, R.H., "Suppression of Rotor Bearing System Vibrations Through Flexible Bearing Support Damping," ASME Paper No. 75-DET-117, presented at the ASME Vibrations Conference, Washington, D.C., September 1975, and published in Trans. ASME, Journal of Engineering for Industry, Vol. 98, Series B, No. 3, August 1976, p.1053-1061.

A bearing damper, operating on the support flexure of a pivoted pad in a tilting-pad type gas-lubricated journal bearing, has been designed, built, and tested under externally applied random vibrations. A 36, 000 rpm, 10 Kwe turbogenerator had previously been subjected to external random vibrations, and vibration response data had been recorded and analyzed for amplitude distribution and frequency content at a number of locations in the machine. Based upon data from that evaluation, a piston-type damper was designed and developed for each of the two flexibly-supported journal bearing pads (one in each of the two three-pad bearings). A modified turbogenerator, with dampers installed, has been retested under random vibration conditions. Root-mean-square vibration amplitudes were determined from the test data, and displacement power spectral density analyses have been performed. Results of these data reduction efforts have been compared with vibration tolerance limits and previously reported response characteristics of the unmodified machine. Results of the tests indicate significant reductions in vibration levels in the bearing gas-lubricant films, particularly in the rigidly mounted pads. The utility of the gas-lubricated damper for limiting rotor-bearing system vibrations in highspeed turbomachinery has thus been demonstrated.

Order: #28

28. Tessarzik, J.M., Smalley, T.J., and Badgley, R.H., "Testing for Material Dynamic Properties," presented at the ASME Vibration Testing - Instrumentation and Data Analysis Symposium, Washington, D.C., September 17-19, 1975, and published in ASME Symposium Volume AMD-Volume 12, 1975, p.117-141.

Many methods have been developed and applied to study the dynamic behavior of materials in which vibration energy is dissipated. A number of the important methods are reviewed and compared in terms of their applicability to different conditions of amplitude and frequency and the nature of the instrumentation required to implement them. A recently developed base excitatio~ resonant mass test method for elastomer materials is described for the purpose of illustrating various sensors and methods of data acquisition. Since the objective of determining dynamic material properties differs in important respects from the objective of determining performance data for specific components, the nature of typical ·material behavior is also reviewed and the additional constraints which must be imposed on tests designed to provide universally applicable material properties are identified.

Order: #29

29.  Badgley, R. H. and Reddecliff, J. , "Evaluation of a Gas-Lubricated Foil Bearing for Control of Gas Turbine Engine Rotor Critical Speeds, " SAE Paper 751072, presented at the Society of Automotive Engineers National Aerospace Engineering and Manufacturing Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, November 1975.

Order: #30

30.  Badgley, R. H. and Fleming, D. P. , "Rotor Balancing Aids New Gas Turbine Design, " Mechanical Engineering, p. 71, December 1975.

Recent trends in high-speed machinery - of which the gas turbine is a prime example - are toward higher power densities. This means even higher speeds and also higher temperatures, and smaller sizes. In these designs, rotor speeds often penetrate hitherto "forbidden" critical speed regimes, where high vibration is expected. To avoid vibration at these speeds, undesirable design compromises are made, and ultra-precise manufacturing tolerances are specified. In spite of these costly measures, high-speed machinery all too often exhibits high vibration when placed in service. As many as one third of industrial gas turbine outages or unscheduled shutdowns are directly related to vibration. Possibly another third are due to causes aggravated by vibration...

Order: #31

31.  Badgley, R. H. , "Modern Influence Coefficient Techniques for Multiplane Rotor Balancing in the Factory, Test Cell and Field, " Conference Proceedings, Vibrations in Rotating Machinery, I. Mech. E. Conference Publication 1976-9, p. 201, Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London.

SYNOPSIS: Several modern techniques have been developed for performing multiplane-multispeed balancing by the influence coefficient procedure. These techniques include the use of digital minicomputers to control the performance of multiple low-cost spin-up stands in'high-production factory environments, as well as the use of remotely accessed time-sharing computer systems for field balancing and occasional user appli-cations. Significant improvements in balance quality are now achievable, together with manufacturing cost reductions. New machinery is now being designed to take advantage of this new capability.

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